What Is the Geneva Agreement

After intense negotiations that began on May 8, 1954, the day after the fall of the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu, agreements were finally signed on July 21 between French and Vietnamese, Laotian and Cambodian representatives. The main provisions were an armistice line along the 17th parallel (effectively dividing Vietnam into two parts); 300 days for each party to withdraw its troops to its side of the line; and communist troops and guerrillas to evacuate Laos and Cambodia, where free elections were held in 1955 and where French troops could be stationed if requested by the Lao or Cambodian government. It was explicitly stated that the demarcation line “shall in no way be interpreted as a political or territorial border”. The implementation of the agreements should be monitored by a commission composed of representatives of India, Poland and Canada. A provision known as the Final Declaration provided that before July 1956, all Vietnamese elections were to be held under the supervision of the committee in order to reunify the country. This was an issue of great importance in getting the Viet Minh to agree to the temporary regrouping of their forces in the northern half of the country, as they controlled three-quarters of Vietnam on the eve of the conference. The Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols constitute a body of international law, also known as the humanitarian law of armed conflict, whose purpose is to ensure minimum protection, standards of humane treatment and fundamental guarantees of respect for persons affected by armed conflict. The Geneva Conventions are a set of treaties on the treatment of civilians, prisoners of war and soldiers who are otherwise rendered hors de combat (French, literally “hors combat”) or incapable. The first convention was initiated by the International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (ICRC). This convention led to a treaty designed to protect wounded and sick soldiers during the war.

The Swiss government agreed to hold the conventions in Geneva, and a few years later a similar agreement was reached to protect the shipwrecked soldiers. In 1949, after the Second World War, two new conventions were added and the Geneva Conventions entered into force on 21 October 1950. Ratification has grown steadily over the decades: 74 states ratified the conventions in the 1950s, 48 states did so in the 1960s, 20 states signed in the 1970s, and another 20 states did so in the 1980s. Twenty-six countries ratified the conventions in the early 1990s, particularly after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and the former Yugoslavia. Seven new ratifications since 2000 have brought the total number of States parties to 194, making the Geneva Conventions universally applicable. While the Geneva Conventions of 1949 have generally been ratified, the Additional Protocols have not. At present, 168 States are parties to Additional Protocol I and 164 States to Additional Protocol II, making the 1977 Additional Protocols one of the most widely used legal instruments in the world. The Geneva Conference lasted until 21 September. July, before it leads to a formal agreement. Among the conditions of the Geneva Conventions were the following: In international law, the term convention does not have its common meaning as an assembly of persons. Rather, it is used in diplomacy to refer to an international agreement or treaty. The Geneva Conventions include four treaties and three additional protocols that set international standards for humanitarian treatment in times of war.

The singular term Geneva Convention generally refers to the 1949 conventions negotiated after World War II (1939-1945), which updated the terms of the two 1929 treaties and added two new conventions. The Geneva Conventions defined in detail the fundamental rights of prisoners of war (civilian and military), established protection for the wounded and sick, and established protection for the civilian population in and around a war zone. The 1949 treaties were ratified in full or with reservations by 196 countries. [1] In addition, the Geneva Convention also defines the rights and protection granted to non-combatants. The Geneva Conventions concern soldiers at war; they do not deal with the actual conduct of war – the use of weapons of war – which is the subject of the Hague Conventions[a] and the Geneva Protocol on Biochemical Warfare. [b] There were also divisions and disagreements within the communist bloc. China and the Soviet Union, for their own strategic reasons, refused to support the Viet Minh`s claim to rule all of Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh`s chief negotiator, Pham Van Dong, has chosen not to ally too closely with Moscow or Beijing, preferring that northern Vietnam keep its own destiny in its hands. All parties present at the conference called for reunification elections, but could not agree on the details. Pham Van Dong proposed elections under the supervision of “local commissions”. The United States, with the support of the United Kingdom and the associated states of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, has proposed UN monitoring. This was rejected by Molotov, who advocated a commission with an equal number of communist and non-communist members, which could only determine “important” issues unanimously.

[15] Negotiators could not agree on a date for the reunification elections. The DRV argued that elections should be held within six months of the ceasefire, and the Western allies tried not to have a deadline. Molotov proposed in June 1955, later in 1955 and finally softened in July 1956. [5]:610 The Diem government supported the reunification elections, but only under effective international supervision; she argued that truly free elections in the totalitarian north were impossible. [16] Geneva Conventions, a series of international treaties concluded in Geneva between 1864 and 1949 to mitigate the effects of war on soldiers and civilians. Two additional protocols to the 1949 Agreement were approved in 1977. To dismiss any notion that the division was permanent, Article 6 of an unsigned final declaration states: “The Conference recognizes that the essential objective of the Vietnam Agreement is to settle military matters with a view to ending hostilities, and that the military demarcation line is provisional and should in no way be interpreted as a political or territorial border.” [21] Diplomats from South Korea, North Korea, the People`s Republic of China (PRC), the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the United States of America (USA) discussed the Korean side of the conference. For the Indochinese side, there were the agreements between the France, the Viet Minh, the USSR, the People`s Republic of China, the United States, the United Kingdom and the future states made up of French`Indochina. [4] The agreement temporarily divided Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone that was to be ruled by the Viet Minh and a southern zone that was to be governed by the State of Vietnam, then ruled by former Emperor Bảo Đại. A final declaration of the conference, issued by the British president of the conference, provided for the holding of parliamentary elections by July 1956 in order to create a unified Vietnamese state. .